What is 405 stainless steel ？
405 stainless steel is a high-alloy stainless steel material whose main components include chromium, nickel and copper. It has good corrosion resistance and performs well in strong acid environments such as oxidizing acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid. 405 stainless steel also has excellent oxidation resistance and can be used at high temperatures for a long time without oxidation. In addition, it also has good processability and welding performance.
405 stainless steel is commonly used in the manufacture of chemical equipment, oil and gas industry equipment, medical equipment, food processing equipment, automotive exhaust systems and other fields. Due to its corrosion resistance and high temperature resistance, 405 stainless steel has important application value in some special environments.
405 stainless steel chemical composition
405 stainless steel is a stainless steel material with a high alloy chemical composition. The following is the chemical composition of 405 stainless steel in general:
405 stainless steel has a high chromium content, which makes it have good corrosion resistance, especially suitable for use in oxidizing environments. In addition, it has a low sulfur content which provides excellent corrosion resistance.
Mechanical properties of 405 stainless steel
405 stainless steel has moderate mechanical properties, the following are the general mechanical performance indicators:
Yield strength (@strain 0.200 %/)
Elongation at break (in 50 mm)
Izod Impact (@20°C/68°F)
Physical properties of 405 stainless steel
405 stainless steel is a high chromium (12-15%) and low nickel (≤1.0%) iron-based alloy with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. The following are common physical properties of 405 stainless steel:
Density: The density of 405 stainless steel is about 7.80 g/cubic centimeter, which is similar to other common stainless steels.
Melting point: The melting point of 405 stainless steel is about 1454-1510 degrees Celsius (2650-2750 degrees Fahrenheit).
Thermal conductivity: The thermal conductivity of 405 stainless steel is relatively low, about 14.6 watts/(m Kelvin).
Linear expansion coefficient: within the temperature range (20-100 degrees Celsius), the linear expansion coefficient is about 10.0-10.8 microns/(m Kelvin).
Modulus of elasticity: The modulus of elasticity of 405 stainless steel is about 200 gigapascals (290,000 psi), indicating its ability to resist deformation and deformation.
Thermal properties of 405 stainless steel
405 stainless steel is a high chromium content stainless steel alloy with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. For thermal performance, here are some characteristics of 405 stainless steel:
Thermal expansion co-efficient (@0-100°C/32-212°F)
Thermal conductivity (@0-100°C/32-212°F)
Magnetic properties of 405 stainless steel
405 stainless steel is a high-alloy chromium-containing stainless steel. In general, stainless steels have low magnetic properties, especially for austenitic stainless steels.
However, 405 stainless steel is a ferritic stainless steel whose main components are iron, chromium and a small amount of nickel. Ferritic stainless steels have higher magnetic properties than austenitic stainless steels. Therefore, 405 stainless steel will show a certain degree of magnetism at room temperature.
To sum up, 405 stainless steel has a certain degree of magnetism, which is caused by its ferrite structure, but it is still a high-quality corrosion-resistant material.
Welding of 405 stainless steel
405 stainless steel is not suitable for oxyacetylene welding, and shielded fusion welding and resistance methods are more suitable for 405 stainless steel. In addition, 405 stainless steel can be hardened by using 405 Cb electrodes containing niobium, and the annealing process after welding can effectively improve 405 stainless steel. extension performance.
Forging of 405 stainless steel
It is recommended to soak Grade 405 stainless steel at 817-871°C (1500-1600°F), then increase the temperature to 1038-1121°C (1900-2050°F). Note that forging is not recommended for this stainless steel grade at temperatures below 816°C (1500°F). After forging, it should be air cooled and finally annealed.
Formability of 405 stainless steel
Stainless steel is an alloy material with excellent formability. The following are some characteristics about the formability of 405 stainless steel:
Plasticity: 405 stainless steel has good plasticity, and can be formed into various shapes through cold working (such as bending, stamping, stretching, etc.) and thermal processing (such as hot bending, forging, etc.).
Weldability: 405 stainless steel has good weldability for common welding methods (such as arc welding, argon arc welding, etc.), and can perform various types of welding operations.
Stretch resistance: 405 stainless steel exhibits high strength and toughness during stretching, so it is suitable for applications that need to withstand high tension or heavy loads.
Deformation resistance: Due to its high strength and hardness, 405 stainless steel has a strong ability to resist deformation during the forming process and can maintain shape stability.
Ability to manufacture complex parts: 405 stainless steel has high formability and can be used to manufacture complex-shaped parts, such as pipes, containers, mechanical parts, etc.
Application of 405 stainless steel
405 stainless steel is a stainless steel alloy with good corrosion resistance, commonly used in the following applications:
Petroleum and chemical industry: 405 stainless steel is widely used in petroleum, chemical and oil refining equipment, especially in high temperature and high pressure environments. It has anti-oxidation and high temperature resistance properties, and can be used to manufacture equipment such as pipelines, storage tanks, heat exchangers, and reactors.
High-temperature furnace stove: Because 405 stainless steel has good high temperature resistance and oxidation resistance, it is often used in the manufacture of high-temperature furnace stoves, such as furnaces, heating elements and refractory supports.
Automobile exhaust system: 405 stainless steel has good resistance to high temperature and corrosive environments, so it is widely used in exhaust pipes, mufflers and exhaust throats in automobile exhaust systems.
Welding and Fabrication Industry: 405 stainless steel is also widely used in welding and fabrication industries due to its mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. It can be used to manufacture structural parts, containers, ship parts, food processing equipment, etc.
Chemical processing equipment: 405 stainless steel has good resistance to certain chemical substances and corrosive media, so it is often used in the manufacture of chemical processing equipment, storage tanks, pipes and valves.