316 stainless steel is a stainless steel material with high corrosion resistance. It consists of a metal with chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) as the main alloying elements, and also contains a small amount of molybdenum (Mo). This stainless steel material has excellent corrosion resistance, especially for acidic environments and chloride media. 316 stainless steel is commonly used in chemical, marine, petroleum, medical equipment and other fields, and is also commonly used in the production of food processing equipment and hotel kitchen utensils. In addition, 316 stainless steel also has high strength and heat resistance, which is suitable for some applications in high temperature environments.
316 Bar and Section (up to 160 mm thick)
316 Sheet (up to 8 mm thick)
316 Plate (8 – 75 mm thick)
500 – 700
530 – 680
520 – 670
Proof Stress (MPa)
Elongation A50 mm
40 Min %
40 Min %
45 Min %
215 Max HB
Modulus of Elasticity
0.74 x 10-6 Ω.m
15.9 x 10-6/K
Corrosion resistance of 316 stainless steel
316 stainless steel exhibits excellent corrosion resistance when exposed to a range of corrosive media such as marine environments. It is resistant to common corrosive media such as acidic solutions, alkaline solutions and chlorides. This makes 316 stainless steel widely used in the manufacture of chemical equipment, marine structures and medical equipment.
However, 316 stainless steel is not corrosion resistant to warm sea water. In warm chloride environments it may suffer from pitting and crevice corrosion problems. This is because the warm chloride environment can cause damage to the passive film on the surface of the material, which reduces the corrosion resistance of stainless steel.
In addition, 316 stainless steel may also undergo stress corrosion cracking at temperatures above approximately 60°C. Stress corrosion cracking results from the interaction of a material with a corrosive medium in a stressed environment. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the problem of stress corrosion cracking when using 316 stainless steel in high temperature environment.
In general, 316 stainless steel is a material with good corrosion resistance, but its limitations need to be considered in some specific environments.
Heat resistance of 316 stainless steel
316 stainless steel is suitable for intermittent work and continuous work in high temperature environment, and has good oxidation resistance. But when used in water, especially for continuous use in the range of 425-860°C, it is recommended to use 316L stainless steel to avoid corrosion problems. If high strength at high temperatures is required, consider using 316H stainless steel.
Cold working of 316 stainless steel
Compared with other stainless steel materials, 316 stainless steel has higher strength and hardness. Therefore, in the cold working process, parts of various shapes and sizes can be processed by bending, rolling, stamping, upsetting and stretching. However, cold working will introduce internal stress, which may cause plastic deformation, cracking or deformation problems of 316 stainless steel after processing. In order to eliminate these internal stresses and improve the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the material, it is recommended to anneal the 316 stainless steel after cold working.
Annealing is the process of heating a metal material to a certain temperature and then cooling it. The purpose is to rearrange the grains in the material, reduce internal stress and enhance the toughness of the material. Through annealing treatment, the strength and hardness of 316 stainless steel may be reduced, but better processing performance and corrosion resistance can be obtained.
In conclusion, 316 stainless steel is suitable for cold working and can be manufactured in various shapes and sizes through various processing methods
parts. However, after cold working, it is recommended that 316 stainless steel be annealed to relieve internal stress and improve the properties of the material.
Hot working of 316 stainless steel
Annealing is an important process performed on stainless steel 316 after hot working. The annealing process can relieve the stress generated during thermal processing and improve the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the material. It is generally recommended to heat stainless steel 316 to a temperature range of 1010-1120°C after hot working, keep it for a certain period of time, and then slowly cool it to room temperature. This annealing process can further refine the grain size of the material, reduce the content of grain boundaries and precipitates, and improve the performance of the material.
It is worth noting that stainless steel 316 is prone to austenitization at high temperatures, which adversely affects the corrosion resistance of the material. Therefore, when performing high-temperature thermal processing, it should be avoided to exceed the annealing temperature range or the temperature range of thermal processing. In addition, avoid severe cooling after annealing, so as to avoid the stress of cold working and affect the properties of the material.
In general, hot working and annealing are the key processes for processing stainless steel 316, which can ensure that the material has good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. Before thermal processing, make sure to know the optimum processing temperature range of the material, and strictly control the process parameters of processing and annealing to ensure the quality of the final product.
Heat treatment of 316 stainless steel
In 316 stainless steel, work hardening is difficult to correct by heat treatment. Work hardening is the deformation of the crystal structure and movement of grain boundaries due to the plastic strain the material is subjected to during cold working. Traditional heat treatment methods, such as quenching or normalizing, cannot eliminate the effect of cold work hardening. Therefore, for 316 stainless steel, solution treatment or annealing are commonly used heat treatment methods.
Solution treatment is to heat 316 stainless steel to a temperature range of about 1010-1120 ° C, and then perform rapid cooling. Through solid solution treatment, chromium and nickel elements in stainless steel can form solid solutions with carbon elements, thereby improving the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the material.
Annealing is to heat 316 stainless steel to a higher temperature (usually about 950-1050 ° C), and then slowly cool it to room temperature. The purpose of annealing is to eliminate cold work hardening and stress, restore balance in the crystal structure, and improve the toughness and machinability of the material.
In conclusion, although 316 stainless steel is not easily hardened by heat treatment, its properties can be improved by solution treatment or annealing.
Machinability of 316 stainless steel
316 stainless steel has good machinability. Processing can be enhanced using the following rules:
Cutting edges must remain sharp. Blunt edges can cause excessive work hardening.
The cut should be light but deep enough to prevent work hardening of the surface of the material.
A chip breaker should be used to help keep chips away from the workpiece
The low thermal conductivity of austenitic alloys leads to heat concentration at the cutting edge. This means that coolants and lubricants are necessary and must be used in abundance.
Welding of 316 stainless steel
Type 316 stainless steel has excellent fusion weldability with or without filler. Oxyacetylene welding is usually used to join carbon steel and some low-alloy steels, and is not suitable for stainless steel welding, especially high-alloy 316 stainless steel. This is because the flame temperature produced by oxyacetylene welding is relatively low and cannot provide enough heat to completely melt and join the materials of 316 stainless steel.
In contrast, 316 stainless steel is usually joined using high temperature welding methods such as argon arc welding, TIG welding or arc welding. These methods can provide enough heat and shielding gas to ensure that the temperature of the welding area reaches the melting point and the materials can be fully melted and joined.
Therefore, if you need to successfully join 316 stainless steel, it is recommended to choose an appropriate high-temperature welding method and use a filler rod or electrode that matches the base material for welding.
Application fields of 316 stainless steel
316 stainless steel is a stainless steel material with very good corrosion resistance, mainly used in the following fields:
Chemical industry: 316 stainless steel shows good corrosion resistance in the treatment and storage of chemicals, solutions and gases, and is often used in chemical equipment, storage tanks, pipelines, etc.
Marine industry: Because 316 stainless steel has good seawater corrosion resistance, it is widely used in ships, offshore platforms, marine equipment and offshore drilling platforms in marine environments.
Medical equipment: 316 stainless steel has good biocompatibility, so it is widely used in medical equipment and medical devices, such as surgical instruments, artificial joints, dental equipment, etc.
Food processing: 316 stainless steel has good acid and alkali resistance and high temperature resistance, and is often used in food processing equipment, such as food storage tanks, food heating and cooling equipment, etc.
Oil and gas industry: 316 stainless steel has good adaptability to oil and gas industry applications in high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environments, such as oil refining equipment, oil drilling platforms, oil well casings, etc.
Construction industry: 316 stainless steel is commonly used in exterior wall decoration, interior decoration, toilet equipment, etc. in the construction industry due to its beautiful appearance, easy cleaning and anti-pollution properties.
In short, 316 stainless steel is widely used in fields that require excellent corrosion resistance, such as chemical, marine, medical, food, oil and gas industries.