stainless steel 400 series and grade

Stainless steel 400 series is Ferritic and martensitic stainless steel, manganese free, can replace 304 stainless steel in some industry processing.

Stainless steel 408

Stainless-steel 408 owns good heat resistance, weak corrosion resistance, 11% Cr, 8% Ni.

Stainless steel 409

Stainless steel 409 is the cheapest model (British and American), usually used as automobile exhaust pipe, is ferritic stainless steel (chromium steel).

Stainless steel 410

Stainless steel 410 is martensite (high strength chromium steel), with good wear resistance and poor corrosion resistance.

Stainless steel 416

Stainless steel 416 add sulfur to improve the processability of the material.

Stainless steel 420

Stainless steel 420 is a kinds of “cutting tool grade” martensitic steel, similar to the earliest stainless steel such as Brinell high chromium steel. It is also used for surgical tools, which can be made very bright.

Stainless steel 430

Stainless steel 430 belongs to ferritic stainless steel, for decoration, such as automotive accessories. Good formability, but poor temperature resistance and corrosion resistance.

Stainless steel 440

Stainless steel 440 is a high strength cutting tool steel, with slightly higher carbon content, can obtain higher yield strength after appropriate heat treatment, and the hardness can reach 58hrc, which is among the hardest stainless steels. The most common application example is “razor blade”. There are three common models: 440A, 440b, 440C, and 440f (easy to process).

The classification of Stainless steel 400 series

According to the classification of metallographic structure, stainless steel mainly includes Austenitic, AUSTENITIC FERRITIC, Ferritic and martensitic stainless steel.
400 series stainless steel mainly includes:
1. Ferritic stainless steel (American ASTM brand): 405, 430, 430F, 434, XM27;
2. Martensitic stainless steel (American ASTM brand): 403, 405, 410, 416, 420, 431, 440A, 440b, 440C and 440f.

Stainless steel 400 series vs ss 300 series

At present, among the five categories of stainless steel developed and applied in the world, only austenitic stainless steel (many 300 series brands and 200 series brands) is often non-magnetic (after processing or weak magnetism), while ferritic stainless steel (many 400 series brands), duplex stainless steel, martensitic stainless steel and precipitation hardening stainless steel are magnetic, which is their main difference.

The industry application

Stainless steel 400 series stainless steel is relatively cheap and is generally used in civil products. Generally, it should be selected in hot chloride environment It can partially replace 300 series austenitic stainless steel in civil and industrial fields such as tableware and kitchen products, household appliances, decoration, automobile exhaust system and petrochemical industry.

the application of stainless steel 400 series

the application of stainless steel 400 series

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400 series stainless steel FAQ

What are the composition and characteristics of 400 series stainless steel?

Commonly used 400 series stainless steel varieties are 430, 410, 420, 409L, etc., of which 430 stainless steel is used the most. The chromium content of 430 stainless steel is 18%, which is characterized by low price, small thermal expansion coefficient, and better chloride stress corrosion resistance than 300 series stainless steel varieties: but its shortcomings are relatively obvious: formability, weldability and tensile strength are less than 300 series stainless steel models, so limited its scope of use. The chromium content of 410 and 420 stainless steel is 13%, and their main feature is high hardness.

Under the same chromium content, the corrosion resistance of 400 series stainless steel is the same as that of 300 series stainless steel and better than that of 200 series stainless steel in oxidizing media such as atmosphere, fresh water and nitric acid. Adding trace elements such as copper, copper and aluminum can improve its deep drawing performance, weldability, corrosion resistance and high temperature resistance strength, and can partially replace 300 series stainless steel.

At present, 400 series stainless steel is widely used in automobile exhaust pipes, elevators, washing machine inner cylinders, kitchen utensils, home appliances, medical equipment, water heaters, roof panels, curtain walls and power plant equipment and other industries.

What types of 400 series stainless steel are there?

There are five main types of stainless steel: austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, duplex, and precipitation hardening. Each type has different characteristics that make it ideal for certain applications.

Austenitic stainless steel is the most widely used type of stainless steel. They have a high chromium content and low carbon content, making them highly resistant to corrosion. They are also non-magnetic and cannot be hardened by heat treatment.

Ferritic stainless steels have lower chromium content than austenitic stainless steels, but still have good corrosion resistance. They can be hardened by cold working, but not by heat treatment.

Martensitic stainless steels have a higher carbon content than austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. They can be hardened by heat treatment and are commonly used in blades and surgical instruments.

The microstructure of duplex stainless steels contains both austenite and ferrite phases. They have excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical properties.

Precipitation hardening stainless steels are a subset of martensitic stainless steels. They are strengthened by precipitation hardening, which involves adding elements such as copper or aluminum to the alloy and then heat treating it to promote the formation of intermetallic phases.

What are the properties of 400 series stainless steel?

400 Series Stainless Steel: This group of alloys includes 410, 416, and 420 steels, which are corrosion resistant and heat treatable. They contain 10.5% to 27% chromium, and small amounts of carbon (0.08% in 410, 0.20% in 416), manganese (1.0%), silicon (0.6%) and other trace elements such as sulfur. They have good oxidation resistance at high temperatures due to their high chromium content. Their mechanical properties are also very different from the 300-series steels; they are generally softer and not as strong at high temperatures as their austenitic cousins. The martensitic grades (410, 420) can be hardened by heat treatment; however, due to their lower chromium content, they are not as corrosion resistant as austenitic stainless steels.

What are the physical properties of 400 series stainless steel?

The 400 series stainless steels are characterized at normal processing temperatures by a single-phase ferritic microstructure in which scattered Ti and Nb carboamides are deposited. The proportion of its chemical composition is very careful, avoiding the annealing temperature or in the heat-affected zone of welding

Austenite and subsequently martensite are formed. Many ferrites have been exposed to temperatures of 700-1100°F (370-590°C) for a long time

Will embrittle after range. This embrittlement is most rapid at a temperature of about 885°F (475°C), often referred to as “885°F

(475°C) embrittlement”. This is caused by the deposition of a Cr-rich second phase called α’ martensite. At 885°C (475°C)The rate of embrittlement depends strongly on the Cr content of the alloy. With less than 12% Cr, embrittlement at 885°F (475°C) is rare.

What is the stress fracture of 400 series stainless steel?

The 409 and 439 alloys have similar fracture data at 1200°F (649°C), while the 439 alloy is slightly longer resistant to fracture under specific stress. However, due to its higher Cr content, Alloy 439 has a longer resistance to fracture at stresses of 1500 psi (10.3 MPa) or less at 1500°F (816°C).

What are the applications of 400 series stainless steel?

The 400 series stainless steels are characterized by high chromium and manganese contents. They are easy to weld and form, making them ideal for a wide range of applications.

Some common applications for 400 series stainless steel include automotive exhaust systems, kitchen appliances, and sinks. This type of stainless steel is also frequently used in architectural applications such as trim and escutcheons.

What is the welding of 400 series stainless steel

The 400 series stainless steels include martensitic and precipitation hardening types that are magnetic in the annealed condition. They can be heat treated to obtain a wide range of strength and hardness values. Martensitic grades contain 11% to 18% chromium and up to 1.2% carbon, while precipitation hardening grades contain 13% to 30% chromium and up to 3% copper. 400 series alloys can be welded by all standard welding processes, although their high carbon content makes them susceptible to cracking during cooling of the weld zone.

What are the benefits of choosing 400 series stainless steel?

Overall, 400 series stainless steel is an excellent choice for a variety of applications requiring strength, durability, and corrosion resistance. Its many features make it an excellent choice for everything from kitchen appliances to industrial components. Plus, its affordability makes it an excellent choice for anyone looking to save money without sacrificing quality. If you are in the market for stainless steel products or components, we strongly recommend that you consider 400 series stainless steel as your material of choice.